Linen Paper Pack - Pastel Linen Digital Scrapbook Paper Pack - Linen Background Textures - Linen Digital Paper Pack by ClikchicDesign
This beautiful Pastel Linen Digital Paper Pack, featuring soft and pretty color tones for those who love lighter shades. The Pastel Linen Digital Scrapbook Background Texture set is must have back to basics set of papers as a go to stash you can come back to over and over. Stay tuned for more back to basics set in Linen to coordinate with the Pastel Linen Papers. These Digital Linen Papers are wonderful for creating beautiful cards, website background textures, party invitations, altered art and are especially great for creative digital scrapbook layouts.
Pink, Light Orange, Lemon Yellow, Mint Green, Sky Blue, Periwinkle Blue and Lavender Linen look digital scrapbook papers.
Rainbow Linen Papers ift.tt/2FelqFt
Neutral Linen Papers ift.tt/2Ocd841
All backgrounds are 12" x 12" 300 dpi jpg. This product is digital and is available for instant DOWNLOAD ONLY.
My products come with a PROFESSIONAL USE license, see my FAQ for details.
Why not check out my large variety of high quality digital scrapbook paper packs: ift.tt/2PfxOqo
**SPECIAL DISCOUNT codes for volume purchases of instant downloads**
Spend $10 and get 10% Off use the coupon code SPEND10GET10OFF
Spend $20 and get 20% Off use the coupon code SPEND20GET20OFF
Spend $30 and get 30% Off use the coupon code SPEND30GET30OFF
Note: **Excludes Canvas Prints
Feral pigeon (Columba livia) in summer plumage - (Published by GETTY IMAGES)
PIGEONS - UNSUNG HEROES IN HISTORY
The Feral pigeon (Columba livia) gets a really bad name thanks to a whole bunch of popular misconceptions. Some say they spread communicable disease to humans, a myth banded by pest control companies and although they can naturally carry some disease like any animal, mankind is more likely to infect THEM with his own germs!
In world terms, Pigeons represent peace and good, symbolizing Prosperity and fertility, luck, fortune, peace and harmony, love and devotion and beauty and piety. It is believed that the Pigeon totem as your animal spirit guide will enter a good persons life after a period of suffering or hurt, restoring faith and the good in their world. It will symbolize Love and kindness, sacrifice and devotion, calmness and tranquility. Their presence in dreams can have significant meaning if the dream is of catching one, killing one, a pigeon falling in the sky, finding a dead pigeon etc. Pablo Ruiz Picasso's 1949 lithograph on paper 'La Colombe', shows a white dove on a black background, widely considered a sign of peace. It was used to illustrate a poster at the 1949 Paris Peace Congress, and is now house in the Tate Gallery, London. The Lithograph went on to become a renowned international iconographic image referred to as 'The dove of peace'. The dove was in fact a Milanese pigeon which had been gifted to Picasso by friend and fellow artist Henri Émile Benoît Matisse.
They are a wild ancestor of domestic world pigeons. A common sight in UK gardens, and traditionally seen on London postcards of Piccadilly circus until the feeding of pigeons was banned around the year 2000, they can weigh up to 370g (8-13oz) with a wingspan of 34cms. There are approximately 550,000 breeding pairs in the UK, and they are protected by The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and happily on the Green status for conservation
With a name taken from the Latin word for Dove, there are around 350 recorded types of pigeon, the commonest being the Feral pigeon with an estimated European population of around 15 million. Feral pigeons are also called city doves, city pigeons, or street pigeons. They make up part of the group of columbiformes which includes the now extinct Dodo to which they are closely related. Wild pigeons live in coastal areas, whilst feral pigeons are more urban, and more often than not found in close proximity to mankind. Feral pigeons have a lifespan usually of between three to five years, much longer in captivity. Pigeons have an incredibly close link to mankind
Technically they are:
Kingdom:Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class:Aves Order: Columbiformes
Family:Columbidae Genus:Columba Species:C. livia Subspecies:C. l. domestica
In the UK, Pigeons are covered under the "General Licences" and therefore it is illegal to kill them or destroy pigeon nests for any reason other than those listed under the general licences. They can be humanely culled by the land owner or their agent for a variety of reasons (mainly crop protection). At commercial premises where I worked for many years, Pigeons and babies were professionally killed on a regular basis, shot with high powered air rifles and then heads dipped into an acid substance... it was very bloody and extremely unpleasant to witness!
They are possibly the first domesticated animal in history and Charles Robert Darwin was one of the first and most famous pigeon breeder, who recognised their beauty and abilities and place in the natural order of things. On board HMS Beagle, he sailed from Plymouth Sound on 27th December 1831 under the command of Captain Robert FitzRoy. Scheduled for a two year voyage, it actually returned on 2nd October 1836. He published his work, 'On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life', in 1859 and it has long been considered the foundation of evolutionary biology. In the opening of the work, Darwin began with 'fancy pigeons' which were becoming fashionable to own and exhibit in London at the time. By crossbreeding the many different species of fancy pigeon, Darwin showed that, contrary to a commonly held belief that there were two different species which spawned the multitude of domestic pigeons, they actually all came from one wild species: the Rock Dove (Columba livia).
Nathan Mayer Rothschild developed a system of communication faster than those of most governments at that time. It is believed that he used carrier pigeons and semaphore to communicate across the English Channel. Following the Battle of Waterloo he used this system to stunning effect. Through a clever stratagem, and foreknowledge of the outcome at Waterloo, Rothschild made an immense fortune by manipulating the London stock market. In the early 1800s the Rothschild family set up a network of pigeon lofts throughout Europe using homing pigeons to carry information between its financial houses. This proved to be the fastest and most efficient method of communication at that time, and the speed of the service and the ability to send and receive information ahead of the competition helped the Rothschild family amass a fortune, which still exists today. There are medals from 1870 commemorating the pigeon post in Paris.
Pigeons are highly intelligent, one of the few birds who can actually recognise themselves in a mirror, tests proving that they were capable of identifying themselves over other pigeons in photographs even with a five to seven second delay and they could even recognize humans in photographs as well. Proving that their self cognitive abilities were higher than a three year old child (who struggled with photographic recognition of a two second delay), pigeons were trained to discriminate real-time self-image using mirrors as well as videotaped self-image, and proved that pigeons can recognize video images that reflect their movements as self-image. They proved themselves capable of being able to learn the alphabet in trials. They have been used to predict the weather with hearing far superior to that of humans in the very low frequency range that allows them to detect incoming storms not yet on the radar. They can assist in message delivery, help in search and rescue missions and even carry wartime messages across enemy lines, dating back to Greek and Roman times, and then forwards to both World Wars by the British Intelligence.
During the first world war, pigeons were dropped from an aeroplane in batches in harnesses with parachutes in order to send and retrieve messages from the resistance. A male pigeon in 1918 named Cher Ami was awarded the Croix de Guerre, an honour bestowed on foreign troops by the French Army, after saving 194 US troops who were pinned down by enemy fire. Despite being shot several times, he still managed to deliver the message attached to him. In history pigeons have been recorded as far back as 3000BC and records show that in the 5th Century AD, both Egypt and Syria used them to send and receive messages. Greek poet Anacreon wrote poems of his tame pigeon over 2000 years ago in which he described the bird's role in carrying a love letter to the poet's lover and how the bird drank from his cup and ate from his hand.
Some scholars believe that man's connections with pigeons go as far back as Neolithic man 10,000 years ago. An archaeological discovery of lifelike pigeon images beside the figurines of the Mother goddess, dating from the Bronze Age (2400-1500 BC) in Sumerian Mesopotamia, links to worship also in Crete where the Goddess was depicted with Doves upon her head. Pigeons were also sacrificed to Aphrodite (Venus), the Goddess of love in Greco-Roman culture. The Dove was also the symbol of Demeter (Ceres). Astarte, goddess of fertility and love was often times depicted with a pigeon in ancient Phoenician tradition and Ishtar, mother to the Sumerian people also. Goddesses Aphrodite and Venus from Greek and Roman culture were similarly often depicted with symbolic pigeons.
They are highly revered in religions including Hindi where it was believed that pigeons were messengers of deity of death, Yama. Also in Muslim and Sikh traditions as well as Christianity. Some Sikhs will ceremoniously feed pigeons in honour of Guru Gobind Singh, a high priest who was renowned as a friend to pigeons. The Old Testament dove of Noah and the New Testament dove of the Holy Spirit are the ancestors of the dovecote birds of the past and today’s urban pigeons. In China, it is believed that with the coming of Spring, a Sparrow hawk would transform into a pigeon and vice versa, repeating the opposite transformation at the end of the season.
Pigeons have been recorded flying at more than 92mph and the average speed is around 78mph, they can also reach altitudes of 6,000 feet. Contrary to the rumour mill, pigeons are very clean birds and very little evidence exists to show that they can spread disease to humans.
Generally pigeons mate for life and are monogamous, both incubate and care for their young, and they are amazingly social creatures found in large groups. Pigeons have also saved lives on sinking ships by being released to alert nearby people, and some pigeons have received honours and awards for their part in saving lives. They have been trained to save lives at sea by recognising the red and yellow life jackets of victims, and even being able to view the UV spectrum. They can use landmarks to recognise and retrace routes, and use the sun as as a guide and an internal magnetic compass.
During a study in 2016, four pigeons built up a vocabulary of between 26 and 58 written English words, they could identify visual patterns and therefore tell them apart. The birds could even identify words they hadn't seen before.
Researchers at University of California Davis Medical Center put 16 pigeons in a room with magnified biopsies of potential breast cancers. If the pigeons correctly identified them as either benign or malignant, they got a treat, Once trained, their percentages of correctly identifying the biopsies was between 85-99% accurate.
Pigeons have been recorded regularly using the subway in the United states of America, hoping on and off subway cars and seeming to understand the direction of the journey. They also on occasions perform aerial backflips, seemingly just for fun. They see the world with five spectral bands, a kaleidoscope of colour compared to humans triple system of colour perception.
These are magnificent birds that so often fall victim to mankind's prejudice and dislike. Take a look at their ornate, beautiful plumage, the many markings and differences in coloration, and think about their history and the incredible journey they have made through the centuries.
Give them some love, they have certainly earned it!
Paul Williams May 2021
©DESPITE STRAIGHT LINES (Paul Williams)
©All photographs on this site are copyright: ©DESPITE STRAIGHT LINES (Paul Williams) 2011 – 2021 & GETTY IMAGES ®
No license is given nor granted in respect of the use of any copyrighted material on this site other than with the express written agreement of ©DESPITE STRAIGHT LINES (Paul Williams). No image may be used as source material for paintings, drawings, sculptures, or any other art form without permission and/or compensation to ©DESPITE STRAIGHT LINES (Paul Williams)
I would like to say a huge and heartfelt 'THANK YOU' to GETTY IMAGES, and the 39.173+ Million visitors to my FLICKR site.
***** Selected for sale in the GETTY IMAGES COLLECTION on June 11th 2021
CREATIVE RF gty.im/1322423575 MOMENT ROYALTY FREE COLLECTION**
This photograph became my 5,049th frame to be selected for sale in the Getty Images collection and I am very grateful to them for this wonderful opportunity.
©DESPITE STRAIGHT LINES (Paul Williams)
Photograph taken at an altitude of Fifty two metres at 09:28am on a beautiful summer morning on Monday 7th June 2021, off Hythe Avenue and Chessington Avenue in Bexleyheath, Kent.
Here we see a of a Rock Dove or Feral pigeon (Columba livia) off Chessington Avenue in Bexleyheath, Kent. They are a wild ancestor of domestic world pigeons. A common sight in UK gardens, and traditionally seen on London postcards of Piccadilly circus until the feeding of pigeons was banned, they can weigh up to 370g with a wingspan of 34cms. There are approximately 550,000 breeding pairs in the UK.
Nikon D850 Focal length 390mm Shutter speed: 1/640s Aperture f/8.0 iso320 Hand held with Sigma OS Optical stabilization enabled on setting 1. 14 Bit uncompressed NEF RAW file size L (8256 x 5504 pixels) Image area FX (36 x 24) Focus mode: AF-C AF-Area mode: 3D-tracking AF-S Priority Selection: Release. Nikon Back button focusing enabled Exposure mode: Manual exposure mode Metering mode: Matrix metering White balance on: Auto1 (4660k) Colour space: RGB Picture control: Neutral (Sharpening +2)
Sigma 60-600mm f/4.5-6.3DG OS HSM SPORTS. Lee SW150 MKI filter holder with MK2 light shield and custom made velcro fitting for the Sigma lens. Lee SW150 circular polariser glass filter.Lee SW150 Filters field pouch.Hoodman HEYENRG round eyepiece oversized eyecup.Mcoplus professional MB-D850 multi function battery grip 6960.Two Nikon EN-EL15a batteries (Priority to battery in Battery grip). Black Rapid Curve Breathe strap. My Memory 128GB Class 10 SDXC 80MB/s card. Lowepro Flipside 400 AW camera bag.
LATITUDE: N 51d 28m 28.43s
LONGITUDE: E 0d 8m 10.42s
RAW (TIFF) FILE: 130.00MB NEF FILE: 90.7MB
PROCESSED (JPeg) FILE: 39.60MB
Nikon D850 Firmware versions C 1.10 (9/05/2019) LD Distortion Data 2.018 (18/02/20) LF 1.00
HP 110-352na Desktop PC with AMD Quad-Core A6-5200 APU 64Bit processor. Radeon HD8400 graphics. 8 GB DDR3 Memory with 1TB Data storage. 64-bit Windows 10. Verbatim USB 2.0 1TB desktop hard drive. WD My Passport Ultra 1tb USB3 Portable hard drive. Nikon ViewNX-1 64bit Version 1.4.1 (18/02/2020). Nikon Capture NX-D 64bit Version 1.6.2 (18/02/2020). Nikon Picture Control Utility 2 (Version 2.4.5 (18/02/2020). Nikon Transfer 2 Version 2.13.5. Adobe photoshop Elements 8 Version 8.0 64bit.
Vulcan interception over Rio
On 3 of June, 1982, a Royal Air Force Avro Vulcan Bomber approached the Brazilian City of Rio de Janeiro with almost no fuel onboard.
The Vulcan was part of the sixth Black Buck Raid launched against the Falkland Islands, which were at the time occupied by Argentina.
However, during one of refueling operations, the refueling probe was damaged and the plane was forced to divert to the closest "friendly" country, in this case, Brazil.
Two Brazilian F-5E Tiger II fighters scrambled to identify and assist the Vulcan, which landed at the civilian Airport of Galeão (GIG).
Unfortunately, the plane landed with an Anti-radar Shrike missile, which was secretly provided to the British by the US, causing a small international scandal since the US was "technically" neutral.
One week later, the Vulcan was returned with it´s crew to the UK. The Brazilians had quite the interest on the Shrike missile; they eventually returned it but on separate parts.
I recently saw a painting of Aicro Junior about this curious moment on history and I decided to make a similar one.
To make this photoshop picture, I used my Avro Vulcan and the American F-5A that I made for the Vietnam Collab in 2018, but with American markings.
To know more about this history, you can watch the short documentary that I made about the Black Buck Raids:
Abell 2199 & NGC 6166 -- Quasar in Hercules
Captured 15 Jun 2021, 22:49 hrs ET, Springfield, VA, USA. Bortle 8 skies, Mallincam DS10C camera, Celestron 8 inch SCT f/10, exposure 20 sec, gain 20, bin 2, stack of 100 light frames, dark and flat frames subtracted, no filter.
Clouds: partly cloudy
Moon phase: 37%
FOV: 29 x 22 arcmin before crop
Resolution: 0.9 arcsec/pixel
Orientation: Up is South
Data for NGC6166:
Apparent magnitude: +12.8
Apparent size: 2 x 1 arcmin
Appearance: group of dim galaxies. NGC6166 is nebulous object (small nebulosity wit two light 'eyes') just right of center and NGC6158 is at 7:30 o'clock.
From the Wikipedia:
Abell 2199 is a galaxy cluster in the Abell catalogue featuring a brightest cluster galaxy NGC 6166, a cD galaxy. Abell 2199 is the definition of a Bautz-Morgan type I cluster due to NGC 6166.
NGC 6166 is an elliptical galaxy in the Abell 2199 cluster. It lies 490 million light years away in the constellation Hercules. The primary galaxy in the cluster, it is one of the most luminous galaxies known in terms of X-ray emissions. NGC 6166 is a radio-loud quasar.
NGC 6166 is a supermassive, type cD galaxy, with several smaller galaxies within its envelope.
Suspected to have formed through a number of galaxy collisions, NGC 6166 has a large number of globular clusters (estimated as between 6,200 and 22,000 in 1996) orbiting the galaxy. A 2016 study, however, gave an even higher number (around 39,000) suggesting also that the halo of this galaxy blends smoothly with the intra-cluster medium. Because of that, the galaxy has richest globular cluster system known. The galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole at its center with a mass of nearly 30 billion M☉ based on dynamical modelling.
NGC 6166 is known to host an active nucleus, classified as an FR I source, which powers two symmetric parsec-scale radio jets and radio lobes and it is caused by the infall of gas into its center caused by a cooling flow that deposits 200 solar masses of gas every year there.
It has been proposed that a number of O-type stars may be present in the center of NGC 6166.
The Abell catalog of rich clusters of galaxies is an all-sky catalog of 4,073 rich galaxy clusters of nominal redshift z ≤ 0.2. This catalog supplements a revision of George O. Abell's original "Northern Survey" of 1958, which had only 2,712 clusters, with a further 1,361 clusters – the "Southern Survey" of 1989, published after Abell's death by co-authors Harold G. Corwin and Ronald P. Olowin from those parts of the south celestial hemisphere that had been omitted from the earlier survey.
The Abell catalog, and especially its clusters, are of interest to amateur astronomers as challenge objects to be viewed in dark locations on large aperture amateur telescopes.
A quasar (/ˈkweɪzɑːr/; also known as a quasi-stellar object, abbreviated QSO) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN), in which a supermassive black hole with mass ranging from millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun is surrounded by a gaseous accretion disk. As gas in the disk falls towards the black hole, energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which can be observed across the electromagnetic spectrum. The power radiated by quasars is enormous; the most powerful quasars have luminosities thousands of times greater than a galaxy such as the Milky Way. Usually, quasars are categorized as a subclass of the more general category of AGN. The redshifts of quasars are of cosmological origin.
The term quasar originated as a contraction of quasi-stellar [star-like] radio source – because quasars were first identified during the 1950s as sources of radio-wave emission of unknown physical origin – and when identified in photographic images at visible wavelengths, they resembled faint, star-like points of light. High-resolution images of quasars, particularly from the Hubble Space Telescope, have demonstrated that quasars occur in the centers of galaxies, and that some host galaxies are strongly interacting or merging galaxies. As with other categories of AGN, the observed properties of a quasar depend on many factors, including the mass of the black hole, the rate of gas accretion, the orientation of the accretion disk relative to the observer, the presence or absence of a jet, and the degree of obscuration by gas and dust within the host galaxy.
Quasars are found over a very broad range of distances, and quasar discovery surveys have demonstrated that quasar activity was more common in the distant past. The peak epoch of quasar activity was approximately 10 billion years ago.
More than a million quasars have been found. The nearest known quasar is about 600 million light-years away (Markarian 231).
The record for the most distant known quasar keeps changing. In 2017, the quasar ULAS J1342+0928 was detected at redshift z = 7.54. Light observed from this 800 million solar mass quasar was emitted when the universe was only 690 million years old. In 2020, the quasar Pōniuāʻena was detected from a time only 700 million years after the Big Bang, and with an estimated mass of 1.5 billion times the mass of our Sun. In early 2021, the quasar J0313-1806, with a 1.6 billion solar-mass black hole, was reported at z = 7.64, 670 million years after the Big Bang. In March 2021, PSO J172.3556+18.7734 was detected and has since been called the most distant known radio-loud quasar discovered.
The term "quasar" was first used in an article by astrophysicist Hong-Yee Chiu in May 1964, in Physics Today, to describe certain astronomically-puzzling objects:
So far, the clumsily long name "quasi-stellar radio sources" is used to describe these objects. Because the nature of these objects is entirely unknown, it is hard to prepare a short, appropriate nomenclature for them so that their essential properties are obvious from their name. For convenience, the abbreviated form "quasar" will be used throughout this paper.
Between 1917 and 1922, it became clear from work by Heber Curtis, Ernst Öpik and others, that some objects ("nebulae") seen by astronomers were in fact distant galaxies like our own. But when radio astronomy commenced in the 1950s, astronomers detected, among the galaxies, a small number of anomalous objects with properties that defied explanation.
The objects emitted large amounts of radiation of many frequencies, but no source could be located optically, or in some cases only a faint and point-like object somewhat like a distant star. The spectral lines of these objects, which identify the chemical elements of which the object is composed, were also extremely strange and defied explanation. Some of them changed their luminosity very rapidly in the optical range and even more rapidly in the X-ray range, suggesting an upper limit on their size, perhaps no larger than our own Solar System. This implies an extremely high power density. Considerable discussion took place over what these objects might be. They were described as "quasi-stellar [meaning: star-like] radio sources", or "quasi-stellar objects" (QSOs), a name which reflected their unknown nature, and this became shortened to "quasar".
The first quasars (3C 48 and 3C 273) were discovered in the late 1950s, as radio sources in all-sky radio surveys. They were first noted as radio sources with no corresponding visible object. Using small telescopes and the Lovell Telescope as an interferometer, they were shown to have a very small angular size. By 1960, hundreds of these objects had been recorded and published in the Third Cambridge Catalogue while astronomers scanned the skies for their optical counterparts. In 1963, a definite identification of the radio source 3C 48 with an optical object was published by Allan Sandage and Thomas A. Matthews. Astronomers had detected what appeared to be a faint blue star at the location of the radio source and obtained its spectrum, which contained many unknown broad emission lines. The anomalous spectrum defied interpretation.
British-Australian astronomer John Bolton made many early observations of quasars, including a breakthrough in 1962. Another radio source, 3C 273, was predicted to undergo five occultations by the Moon. Measurements taken by Cyril Hazard and John Bolton during one of the occultations using the Parkes Radio Telescope allowed Maarten Schmidt to find a visible counterpart to the radio source and obtain an optical spectrum using the 200-inch (5.1 m) Hale Telescope on Mount Palomar. This spectrum revealed the same strange emission lines. Schmidt was able to demonstrate that these were likely to be the ordinary spectral lines of hydrogen redshifted by 15.8%, at the time, a high redshift (with only a handful of much fainter galaxies known with higher redshift). If this was due to the physical motion of the "star", then 3C 273 was receding at an enormous velocity, around 47000 km/s, far beyond the speed of any known star and defying any obvious explanation. Nor would an extreme velocity help to explain 3C 273's huge radio emissions. If the redshift was cosmological (now known to be correct), the large distance implied that 3C 273 was far more luminous than any galaxy, but much more compact. Also, 3C 273 was bright enough to detect on archival photographs dating back to the 1900s; it was found to be variable on yearly timescales, implying that a substantial fraction of the light was emitted from a region less than 1 light-year in size, tiny compared to a galaxy.
Although it raised many questions, Schmidt's discovery quickly revolutionized quasar observation. The strange spectrum of 3C 48 was quickly identified by Schmidt, Greenstein and Oke as hydrogen and magnesium redshifted by 37%. Shortly afterwards, two more quasar spectra in 1964 and five more in 1965 were also confirmed as ordinary light that had been redshifted to an extreme degree. While the observations and redshifts themselves were not doubted, their correct interpretation was heavily debated, and Bolton's suggestion that the radiation detected from quasars were ordinary spectral lines from distant highly redshifted sources with extreme velocity was not widely accepted at the time.
An extreme redshift could imply great distance and velocity but could also be due to extreme mass or perhaps some other unknown laws of nature. Extreme velocity and distance would also imply immense power output, which lacked explanation. The small sizes were confirmed by interferometry and by observing the speed with which the quasar as a whole varied in output, and by their inability to be seen in even the most powerful visible-light telescopes as anything more than faint starlike points of light. But if they were small and far away in space, their power output would have to be immense and difficult to explain. Equally, if they were very small and much closer to our galaxy, it would be easy to explain their apparent power output, but less easy to explain their redshifts and lack of detectable movement against the background of the universe.
Schmidt noted that redshift is also associated with the expansion of the universe, as codified in Hubble's law. If the measured redshift was due to expansion, then this would support an interpretation of very distant objects with extraordinarily high luminosity and power output, far beyond any object seen to date. This extreme luminosity would also explain the large radio signal. Schmidt concluded that 3C 273 could either be an individual star around 10 km wide within (or near to) our galaxy, or a distant active galactic nucleus. He stated that a distant and extremely powerful object seemed more likely to be correct.
Schmidt's explanation for the high redshift was not widely accepted at the time. A major concern was the enormous amount of energy these objects would have to be radiating, if they were distant. In the 1960s no commonly accepted mechanism could account for this. The currently accepted explanation, that it is due to matter in an accretion disc falling into a supermassive black hole, was only suggested in 1964 by Edwin Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich, and even then it was rejected by many astronomers, because in the 1960s, the existence of black holes was still widely seen as theoretical and too exotic, and because it was not yet confirmed that many galaxies (including our own) have supermassive black holes at their center. The strange spectral lines in their radiation, and the speed of change seen in some quasars, also suggested to many astronomers and cosmologists that the objects were comparatively small and therefore perhaps bright, massive and not far away; accordingly that their redshifts were not due to distance or velocity, and must be due to some other reason or an unknown process, meaning that the quasars were not really powerful objects nor at extreme distances, as their redshifted light implied. A common alternative explanation was that the redshifts were caused by extreme mass (gravitational redshifting explained by general relativity) and not by extreme velocity (explained by special relativity).
Various explanations were proposed during the 1960s and 1970s, each with their own problems. It was suggested that quasars were nearby objects, and that their redshift was not due to the expansion of space (special relativity) but rather to light escaping a deep gravitational well (general relativity). This would require a massive object, which would also explain the high luminosities. However, a star of sufficient mass to produce the measured redshift would be unstable and in excess of the Hayashi limit. Quasars also show forbidden spectral emission lines, previously only seen in hot gaseous nebulae of low density, which would be too diffuse to both generate the observed power and fit within a deep gravitational well. There were also serious concerns regarding the idea of cosmologically distant quasars. One strong argument against them was that they implied energies that were far in excess of known energy conversion processes, including nuclear fusion. There were suggestions that quasars were made of some hitherto unknown form of stable antimatter regions and that this might account for their brightness. Others speculated that quasars were a white hole end of a wormhole, or a chain reaction of numerous supernovae.
Eventually, starting from about the 1970s, many lines of evidence (including the first X-ray space observatories, knowledge of black holes and modern models of cosmology) gradually demonstrated that the quasar redshifts are genuine and due to the expansion of space, that quasars are in fact as powerful and as distant as Schmidt and some other astronomers had suggested, and that their energy source is matter from an accretion disc falling onto a supermassive black hole. This included crucial evidence from optical and X-ray viewing of quasar host galaxies, finding of "intervening" absorption lines, which explained various spectral anomalies, observations from gravitational lensing, Peterson and Gunn's 1971 finding that galaxies containing quasars showed the same redshift as the quasars, and Kristian's 1973 finding that the "fuzzy" surrounding of many quasars was consistent with a less luminous host galaxy.
This model also fits well with other observations suggesting that many or even most galaxies have a massive central black hole. It would also explain why quasars are more common in the early universe: as a quasar draws matter from its accretion disc, there comes a point when there is less matter nearby, and energy production falls off or ceases, as the quasar becomes a more ordinary type of galaxy.
The accretion-disc energy-production mechanism was finally modeled in the 1970s, and black holes were also directly detected (including evidence showing that supermassive black holes could be found at the centers of our own and many other galaxies), which resolved the concern that quasars were too luminous to be a result of very distant objects or that a suitable mechanism could not be confirmed to exist in nature. By 1987 it was "well accepted" that this was the correct explanation for quasars, and the cosmological distance and energy output of quasars was accepted by almost all researchers.
Later it was found that not all quasars have strong radio emission; in fact only about 10% are "radio-loud". Hence the name "QSO" (quasi-stellar object) is used (in addition to "quasar") to refer to these objects, further categorised into the "radio-loud" and the "radio-quiet" classes. The discovery of the quasar had large implications for the field of astronomy in the 1960s, including drawing physics and astronomy closer together.
In 1979 the gravitational lens effect predicted by Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity was confirmed observationally for the first time with images of the double quasar 0957+561.
A study published in February, 2021, showed that there are more quasars in one direction (towards Hydra) than in the opposite direction, seemingly indicating that we are moving in that direction. But the direction of this dipole is about 28° away from the direction of our motion relative to the cosmic microwave background radiation.
In March, 2021, a collaboration of scientists, related to the Event Horizon Telescope, presented, for the first time, a polarized-based image of a black hole, particularly the black hole at the center of Messier 87, an elliptical galaxy approximately 55 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo, revealing the forces giving rise to quasars.
It is now known that quasars are distant but extremely luminous objects, so any light that reaches the Earth is redshifted due to the metric expansion of space.
Quasars inhabit the centers of active galaxies and are among the most luminous, powerful, and energetic objects known in the universe, emitting up to a thousand times the energy output of the Milky Way, which contains 200–400 billion stars. This radiation is emitted across the electromagnetic spectrum, almost uniformly, from X-rays to the far infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays. With high-resolution imaging from ground-based telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope, the "host galaxies" surrounding the quasars have been detected in some cases. These galaxies are normally too dim to be seen against the glare of the quasar, except with special techniques. Most quasars, with the exception of 3C 273, whose average apparent magnitude is 12.9, cannot be seen with small telescopes.
Quasars are believed—and in many cases confirmed—to be powered by accretion of material into supermassive black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies, as suggested in 1964 by Edwin Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich. Light and other radiation cannot escape from within the event horizon of a black hole. The energy produced by a quasar is generated outside the black hole, by gravitational stresses and immense friction within the material nearest to the black hole, as it orbits and falls inward. The huge luminosity of quasars results from the accretion discs of central supermassive black holes, which can convert between 6% and 32% of the mass of an object into energy, compared to just 0.7% for the p–p chain nuclear fusion process that dominates the energy production in Sun-like stars. Central masses of 105 to 109 solar masses have been measured in quasars by using reverberation mapping. Several dozen nearby large galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, that do not have an active center and do not show any activity similar to a quasar, are confirmed to contain a similar supermassive black hole in their nuclei (galactic center). Thus it is now thought that all large galaxies have a black hole of this kind, but only a small fraction have sufficient matter in the right kind of orbit at their center to become active and power radiation in such a way as to be seen as quasars.
This also explains why quasars were more common in the early universe, as this energy production ends when the supermassive black hole consumes all of the gas and dust near it. This means that it is possible that most galaxies, including the Milky Way, have gone through an active stage, appearing as a quasar or some other class of active galaxy that depended on the black-hole mass and the accretion rate, and are now quiescent because they lack a supply of matter to feed into their central black holes to generate radiation.
Quasars in interacting galaxies
The matter accreting onto the black hole is unlikely to fall directly in, but will have some angular momentum around the black hole, which will cause the matter to collect into an accretion disc. Quasars may also be ignited or re-ignited when normal galaxies merge and the black hole is infused with a fresh source of matter. In fact, it has been suggested that a quasar could form when the Andromeda Galaxy collides with our own Milky Way galaxy in approximately 3–5 billion years.
In the 1980s, unified models were developed in which quasars were classified as a particular kind of active galaxy, and a consensus emerged that in many cases it is simply the viewing angle that distinguishes them from other active galaxies, such as blazars and radio galaxies.
The highest-redshift quasar known (as of December 2017) was ULAS J1342+0928, with a redshift of 7.54, which corresponds to a comoving distance of approximately 29.36 billion light-years from Earth (these distances are much larger than the distance light could travel in the universe's 13.8 billion year history because space itself has also been expanding).
Bright halos around 18 distant quasars
The Chandra X-ray image is of the quasar PKS 1127-145, a highly luminous source of X-rays and visible light about 10 billion light-years from Earth. An enormous X-ray jet extends at least a million light-years from the quasar. Image is 60 arcseconds on a side. RA 11h 30m 7.10s Dec −14° 49' 27" in Crater. Observation date: May 28, 2000. Instrument: ACIS.
More than 750000 quasars have been found (as of August 2020), most from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All observed quasar spectra have redshifts between 0.056 and 7.64 (as of 2021). Applying Hubble's law to these redshifts, it can be shown that they are between 600 million and 29.36 billion light-years away (in terms of comoving distance). Because of the great distances to the farthest quasars and the finite velocity of light, they and their surrounding space appear as they existed in the very early universe.
The power of quasars originates from supermassive black holes that are believed to exist at the core of most galaxies. The Doppler shifts of stars near the cores of galaxies indicate that they are revolving around tremendous masses with very steep gravity gradients, suggesting black holes.
Although quasars appear faint when viewed from Earth, they are visible from extreme distances, being the most luminous objects in the known universe. The brightest quasar in the sky is 3C 273 in the constellation of Virgo. It has an average apparent magnitude of 12.8 (bright enough to be seen through a medium-size amateur telescope), but it has an absolute magnitude of −26.7. From a distance of about 33 light-years, this object would shine in the sky about as brightly as our Sun. This quasar's luminosity is, therefore, about 4 trillion (4×1012) times that of the Sun, or about 100 times that of the total light of giant galaxies like the Milky Way. This assumes that the quasar is radiating energy in all directions, but the active galactic nucleus is believed to be radiating preferentially in the direction of its jet. In a universe containing hundreds of billions of galaxies, most of which had active nuclei billions of years ago but only seen today, it is statistically certain that thousands of energy jets should be pointed toward the Earth, some more directly than others. In many cases it is likely that the brighter the quasar, the more directly its jet is aimed at the Earth. Such quasars are called blazars.
The hyperluminous quasar APM 08279+5255 was, when discovered in 1998, given an absolute magnitude of −32.2. High-resolution imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope and the 10 m Keck Telescope revealed that this system is gravitationally lensed. A study of the gravitational lensing of this system suggests that the light emitted has been magnified by a factor of ~10. It is still substantially more luminous than nearby quasars such as 3C 273.
Quasars were much more common in the early universe than they are today. This discovery by Maarten Schmidt in 1967 was early strong evidence against steady-state cosmology and in favor of the Big Bang cosmology. Quasars show the locations where massive black holes are growing rapidly (by accretion). These black holes grow in step with the mass of stars in their host galaxy in a way not understood at present. One idea is that jets, radiation and winds created by the quasars shut down the formation of new stars in the host galaxy, a process called "feedback". The jets that produce strong radio emission in some quasars at the centers of clusters of galaxies are known to have enough power to prevent the hot gas in those clusters from cooling and falling on to the central galaxy.
Quasars' luminosities are variable, with time scales that range from months to hours. This means that quasars generate and emit their energy from a very small region, since each part of the quasar would have to be in contact with other parts on such a time scale as to allow the coordination of the luminosity variations. This would mean that a quasar varying on a time scale of a few weeks cannot be larger than a few light-weeks across. The emission of large amounts of power from a small region requires a power source far more efficient than the nuclear fusion that powers stars. The conversion of gravitational potential energy to radiation by infalling to a black hole converts between 6% and 32% of the mass to energy, compared to 0.7% for the conversion of mass to energy in a star like our Sun. It is the only process known that can produce such high power over a very long term. (Stellar explosions such as supernovas and gamma-ray bursts, and direct matter–antimatter annihilation, can also produce very high power output, but supernovae only last for days, and the universe does not appear to have had large amounts of antimatter at the relevant times.)
Gravitationally lensed quasar HE 1104-1805
File:Artist's impression of mysterious alignment of quasar rotation axes.ogv
Animation shows the alignments between the spin axes of quasars and the large-scale structures that they inhabit.
Since quasars exhibit all the properties common to other active galaxies such as Seyfert galaxies, the emission from quasars can be readily compared to those of smaller active galaxies powered by smaller supermassive black holes. To create a luminosity of 1040 watts (the typical brightness of a quasar), a super-massive black hole would have to consume the material equivalent of 10 stars per year. The brightest known quasars devour 1000 solar masses of material every year. The largest known is estimated to consume matter equivalent to 10 Earths per second. Quasar luminosities can vary considerably over time, depending on their surroundings. Since it is difficult to fuel quasars for many billions of years, after a quasar finishes accreting the surrounding gas and dust, it becomes an ordinary galaxy.
Radiation from quasars is partially "nonthermal" (i.e., not due to black-body radiation), and approximately 10% are observed to also have jets and lobes like those of radio galaxies that also carry significant (but poorly understood) amounts of energy in the form of particles moving at relativistic speeds. Extremely high energies might be explained by several mechanisms (see Fermi acceleration and Centrifugal mechanism of acceleration). Quasars can be detected over the entire observable electromagnetic spectrum, including radio, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-ray and even gamma rays. Most quasars are brightest in their rest-frame ultraviolet wavelength of 121.6 nm Lyman-alpha emission line of hydrogen, but due to the tremendous redshifts of these sources, that peak luminosity has been observed as far to the red as 900.0 nm, in the near infrared. A minority of quasars show strong radio emission, which is generated by jets of matter moving close to the speed of light. When viewed downward, these appear as blazars and often have regions that seem to move away from the center faster than the speed of light (superluminal expansion). This is an optical illusion due to the properties of special relativity.
Quasar redshifts are measured from the strong spectral lines that dominate their visible and ultraviolet emission spectra. These lines are brighter than the continuous spectrum. They exhibit Doppler broadening corresponding to mean speed of several percent of the speed of light. Fast motions strongly indicate a large mass. Emission lines of hydrogen (mainly of the Lyman series and Balmer series), helium, carbon, magnesium, iron and oxygen are the brightest lines. The atoms emitting these lines range from neutral to highly ionized, leaving it highly charged. This wide range of ionization shows that the gas is highly irradiated by the quasar, not merely hot, and not by stars, which cannot produce such a wide range of ionization.
Like all (unobscured) active galaxies, quasars can be strong X-ray sources. Radio-loud quasars can also produce X-rays and gamma rays by inverse Compton scattering of lower-energy photons by the radio-emitting electrons in the jet.
Iron quasars show strong emission lines resulting from low-ionization iron (Fe II), such as IRAS 18508-7815.
Spectral lines, reionization, and the early universe
Main articles: Reionization and Chronology of the Universe
This view, taken with infrared light, is a false-color image of a quasar-starburst tandem with the most luminous starburst ever seen in such a combination.
Spectrum from quasar HE 0940-1050 after it has travelled through intergalactic medium
Quasars also provide some clues as to the end of the Big Bang's reionization. The oldest known quasars (z = 6)[needs update] display a Gunn–Peterson trough and have absorption regions in front of them indicating that the intergalactic medium at that time was neutral gas. More recent quasars show no absorption region, but rather their spectra contain a spiky area known as the Lyman-alpha forest; this indicates that the intergalactic medium has undergone reionization into plasma, and that neutral gas exists only in small clouds.
The intense production of ionizing ultraviolet radiation is also significant, as it would provide a mechanism for reionization to occur as galaxies form. Despite this, current theories suggest that quasars were not the primary source of reionization; the primary causes of reionization were probably the earliest generations of stars, known as Population III stars (possibly 70%), and dwarf galaxies (very early small high-energy galaxies) (possibly 30%).
Quasars show evidence of elements heavier than helium, indicating that galaxies underwent a massive phase of star formation, creating population III stars between the time of the Big Bang and the first observed quasars. Light from these stars may have been observed in 2005 using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, although this observation remains to be confirmed.
The taxonomy of quasars includes various subtypes representing subsets of the quasar population having distinct properties.
Radio-loud quasars are quasars with powerful jets that are strong sources of radio-wavelength emission. These make up about 10% of the overall quasar population.
Radio-quiet quasars are those quasars lacking powerful jets, with relatively weaker radio emission than the radio-loud population. The majority of quasars (about 90%) are radio-quiet.
Broad absorption-line (BAL) quasars are quasars whose spectra exhibit broad absorption lines that are blueshifted relative to the quasar's rest frame, resulting from gas flowing outward from the active nucleus in the direction toward the observer. Broad absorption lines are found in about 10% of quasars, and BAL quasars are usually radio-quiet. In the rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of BAL quasars, broad absorption lines can be detected from ionized carbon, magnesium, silicon, nitrogen, and other elements.
Type 2 (or Type II) quasars are quasars in which the accretion disk and broad emission lines are highly obscured by dense gas and dust. They are higher-luminosity counterparts of Type 2 Seyfert galaxies.
Red quasars are quasars with optical colors that are redder than normal quasars, thought to be the result of moderate levels of dust extinction within the quasar host galaxy. Infrared surveys have demonstrated that red quasars make up a substantial fraction of the total quasar population.
Optically violent variable (OVV) quasars are radio-loud quasars in which the jet is directed toward the observer. Relativistic beaming of the jet emission results in strong and rapid variability of the quasar brightness. OVV quasars are also considered to be a type of blazar.
Weak emission line quasars are quasars having unusually faint emission lines in the ultraviolet/visible spectrum.
Role in celestial reference systems
The energetic radiation of the quasar makes dark galaxies glow, helping astronomers to understand the obscure early stages of galaxy formation.
Because quasars are extremely distant, bright, and small in apparent size, they are useful reference points in establishing a measurement grid on the sky. The International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) is based on hundreds of extra-galactic radio sources, mostly quasars, distributed around the entire sky. Because they are so distant, they are apparently stationary to our current technology, yet their positions can be measured with the utmost accuracy by very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI). The positions of most are known to 0.001 arcsecond or better, which is orders of magnitude more precise than the best optical measurements.
A grouping of two or more quasars on the sky can result from a chance alignment, where the quasars are not physically associated, from actual physical proximity, or from the effects of gravity bending the light of a single quasar into two or more images by gravitational lensing.
When two quasars appear to be very close to each other as seen from Earth (separated by a few arcseconds or less), they are commonly referred to as a "double quasar". When the two are also close together in space (i.e. observed to have similar redshifts), they are termed a "quasar pair", or as a "binary quasar" if they are close enough that their host galaxies are likely to be physically interacting.
As quasars are overall rare objects in the universe, the probability of three or more separate quasars being found near the same physical location is very low, and determining whether the system is closely separated physically requires significant observational effort. The first true triple quasar was found in 2007 by observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory Mauna Kea, Hawaii. LBQS 1429-008 (or QQQ J1432-0106) was first observed in 1989 and at the time was found to be a double quasar. When astronomers discovered the third member, they confirmed that the sources were separate and not the result of gravitational lensing. This triple quasar has a redshift of z = 2.076. The components are separated by an estimated 30–50 kiloparsecs (roughly 97,000-160,000 light years), which is typical for interacting galaxies. In 2013, the second true triplet of quasars, QQQ J1519+0627, was found with a redshift z = 1.51, the whole system fitting within a physical separation of 25 kpc (about 80,000 light years).
The first true quadruple quasar system was discovered in 2015 at a redshift z = 2.0412 and has an overall physical scale of about 200 kpc (roughly 650,000 light years).
A multiple-image quasar is a quasar whose light undergoes gravitational lensing, resulting in double, triple or quadruple images of the same quasar. The first such gravitational lens to be discovered was the double-imaged quasar Q0957+561 (or Twin Quasar) in 1979. An example of a triply lensed quasar is PG1115+08. Several quadruple-image quasars are known, including the Einstein Cross and the Cloverleaf Quasar, with the first such discoveries happening in the mid-1980s.
Sustainable Cleaning Solution
Get neutral green toxic free chemical cleaning services at competitive prices in UK.
Verona Italy Travel Photography
A panoramic city view of Verona from Punto panoramico Castel San Pietro, Verona, Italy, September 2017, Huawei Mate 9 Pro.
Verona Italy Street Photography
A girl with red hair and a bright green jacket under a gloomy sky in Ponte Pietra Bridge, Verona, Italy, September 2017, Leica M.
Verona Italy Street Photography
A candid street photo of locals in front of Archivio Bar, Verona, Italy, September 2017, Leica M.
Verona Italy Street Photography
Three people talking while on a cigarette break in front of Archivio, Verona, Italy, September 2017, Leica M.
Verona Italy Travel Photography
A panoramic city view of Verona from Punto panoramico Castel San Pietro, Verona, Italy, September 2017, Leica M.
Verona Italy Street Photography
A street snapshot of pedestrians in front of Osteria Del Bugiardo, Verona, Italy, September 2017, Leica M.
ALUMNI: Singular or plural? Masculine or feminine? Say what?!
ALUMNI: Singular or plural? Masculine or feminine? Say what?!
ALUMNI: Singular or plural? Masculine or feminine? Say what?!
is promoted by L-Series Music Company is continuously working to create an ample catalog of music comprising plenty of languages that covers the length & breadth of India.
ALUMNI: Singular or plural? Masculine or feminine? Say what?!
Have you been getting 'alumni' all wrong? Is it singular or plural? Masculine or feminine? What about fiancé? And fireman? And nurse? Why are some words in English gender-specific? Shouldn't we make them gender-neutral? All this and more in this video. Thank you for subscribing to The English Nut. If you haven't yet, please do so right away! 🙂
Episode #99 TITLE: Alumni, fiancé, air hostess, nurse, policeman:
Are you using these words correctly? Some of us are members of our school and college alumni associations. But we often use the word incorrectly. If you say, "I am an alumni of such and such school," you are speaking incorrect English. Get introduced to the different forms of the word based on the gender and number.
I'll also tell you about the informal neutral form of the word -- though I'll discourage you from using it! 🙂 As you might have guessed, 'alumni' comes from Latin. The root word has an interesting meaning, which connects to the current meaning. I'll also introduce you to 'alma mater', which is a cousin of 'alumni'. What's the difference between 'fiancé' and 'fiancée' ?
5 Tips That Can Help You to Find the Best Goa to Mumbai Car Rental Services
Be neutral while you start searching. Any kind of past experience can deny you from reaching the best cab service in Mumbai.
Mt Ruapehu from Lake Rotokura
Pentax ZX-M w. Vivitar Series 1 70-210mm. Hitech 1.2 Neutral Density Filter. Fuji Velvia 50.
EMPIRE NAPOLEON 1 FRENCH TAPESTRY CUSHION
Elegant European jacquard loom woven tapestry cushion cover featuring an emblem of the Napoleon medallion. The array of neutral tones of cream and beige are tied together with the faint olive tones in the laurel leaves and the shades of red and burgundy in the medallion. A wonderful piece for your home decor motif.
HiChen Lovely Cat Face Shape Basket, Large Woven Cotton Rope Storage Basket - 15.7
Large Woven Cotton Rope Storage Basket, Laundry Basket Organizer for Towels, Blanket, Toys, Clothes, Gifts
Pet Gift Basket for Cat, Dog...
Large Size：15.7" L×11.8" H
Made of natural and durable cotton material, this rope basket has enough space to store clothes, pillows, blankets, children's toys, and more.
Compared with other materials hamper, the cotton material never scratches the skin, soft but stands sturdy as plastic. Natural material has no chemicals, which is safe for kids and home use.
Soft and natural material can also allow your cats, dogs, and other small animals to sleep in. It will be the warmest home for these small animals if you put a cushion in the basket.
Special Design: The design of cat ears is novel and unique, which can be used as a decoration or handles for easy lifting
Washable: The best way to clean the rope basket is to spot wash with warm water and dry in the sun or near a radiator. Stubborn stains can be removed with a little baking soda paste and warm water. Hot water will shrink the cotton
The neutral color and cute cat face design of the pet basket are delicate and lovely, which can be a good decoration for your space.
Quartz Leather Watch
The quartz leather watch with 3 plating case color: silver, gold, rose gold. The color of clasp match with case color. The using life of battery is 2 years at least. This is neutral design.
Descriptions of Quartz Leather Watch
Neutral quartz leather watch for men or for women all is no problem
IP/PVD plating with 3 color for your choice
Swiss quartz movt warranty the centre quality of the quartz leather watch
Details ofQuartz Leather Watch
38mm diameter stainless steel watch
Applied index line markers with plating color
Stainless steel back cover
Genuine leather strap with clasp
Advantages of Quartz Leather Watch
Simple but classic design
Widely be used
Thin genuine leather strap with comfortable feeling
Lattice Geometric Neutral Washable Rug
Rich with amazing geometric lattice patterns in neutral tones, our beautiful and contemporary rug will take your living room or bedroom to a new level. This stylish geometric rug will bring high style and balance to your home design. Boldly patterned rugs can add depth, beauty, and texture to any room.
Rosalba Carriera (Venezia, 7 ottobre 1675 – Venezia, 15 aprile 1757) - ritratto di gentiluomo (1730-40) - pastello su carta 47.7 x 36 cm. - Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milano
Rosalba Carriera (Venice, October 7, 1675 - Venice, April 15, 1757) - portrait of a gentleman (1730-40) - pastel on paper 47.7 x 36 cm. - Poldi Pezzoli Museum, Milan
Non si conosce l’identità di questo nobiluomo: posto di tre quarti, indossa una veste da camera marrone, colore molto in voga nel Settecento, sotto cui si intravede una marsina in seta operata. Un fazzoletto bianco gli fascia il collo e una grande parrucca, come vuole la moda dell’epoca, incornicia il viso ovale. Lo sguardo è diretto, serio e vagamente malinconico. Lo sfondo è neutro, per concentrare tutta l’attenzione sul volto. Il dipinto risale alla piena maturità artistica di Rosalba Carriera, pittrice veneziana che si dedica inizialmente alla miniatura, per affermarsi successivamente come ritrattista alla moda, soprattutto dopo il soggiorno parigino intorno al 1720. Con il suo linguaggio pittorico, ormai compiutamente rococò e decisamente all’avanguardia rispetto ai ritrattisti locali, l’artista aderisce agli ideali di grazia, eleganza e raffinatezza della società mondana del tempo. La sua pittura appare nuova, fresca, chiara e leggera nel tocco. I suoi ritratti sono molto richiesti sia dall’aristocrazia veneziana e dagli stranieri illustri che soggiornano nella città lagunare, sia dalle grandi corti di tutta Europa. In quest’opera, ciò che colpisce maggiormente è la sensazione materica, quasi tattile, della parrucca dagli effetti evanescenti e vaporosi, che sembra sia stata appena incipriata. Questa sensazione è sottolineata anche dall’uso magistrale del pastello, di cui Rosalba Carriera è una delle più grandi virtuose: una tecnica con cui l’ immagine sembra sciogliersi nella luce.
We do not know the identity of this nobleman: in a three-quarter profile, he is wearing a brown dressing gown, a color very much in vogue in the eighteenth century, under which we can see a silk tailcoat. A white handkerchief wraps around his neck and a large wig, as was the fashion of the time, frames his oval face. The gaze is direct, serious and vaguely melancholic. The background is neutral, to focus all the attention on the face. The painting dates back to the full artistic maturity of Rosalba Carriera, Venetian painter who initially devoted herself to the miniature, to establish herself later as a fashionable portraitist, especially after her stay in Paris around 1720. With her pictorial language, now fully rococo and decidedly avant-garde compared to local portrait painters, the artist adheres to the ideals of grace, elegance and refinement of the society of the time. His painting appears new, fresh, clear and light in touch. His portraits are in great demand both by the Venetian aristocracy and the illustrious foreigners staying in the lagoon city, and by the great courts of all Europe. In this work, what is most striking is the material sensation, almost tactile, of the wig with its evanescent and vaporous effects, which seems to have just been powdered. This sensation is also underlined by the masterly use of pastel, of which Rosalba Carriera is one of the greatest virtuosos: a technique with which the image seems to melt in the light.
Are Work Boots Business Casual? (Examples & Ideas)
Your great safety work boots have saved you a few attempted toe crushes when you were repairing your garage last weekend. But, as you’re ironing your business casual attire for the TGIF casual Friday, you start imagining yourself in the work boot at the office.
But you don’t want the fashion cops there to be on your case.
So you wonder: are work boots business casual?
Yes, work boots are business casual attire. The perfect work boots can match well with business formal dress codes. You just have to match the color to your style.
Business casual work boots give you the flexibility and freedom to express your fashion style.
So, here, I’ll show you why you should wear comfortable work boots to your casual meetings.
What is considered business casual in reality?
If you’re in an office setting and don’t want to wear formal suits and ties, try business casual.
Classic business casual styles include khakis and specific jeans that also rhyme well with this dress code.
What to wear as business casual
Business casual is a fashion style that blends both traditional dress codes with modern professional office outfits. The idea is to give you a professional look and a relaxed style at the same time.
For instance, you could wear a dress shirt and leave out the tie or jacket if you are in business casual outfits.
Jobs are becoming remote, and the office setting is fading away.
Therefore, the attire visible or at the top makes more sense than that which is below. If you are attending a zoom meeting, you may want to be concerned more about wearing upwards than downwards.
Check the company’s dress code and blend well with them.
If you are heading to a client meeting outside the office, you may want to look less formal. Blending the office attire with the casual environment results in the business casual dress codes.
And, if invited for a random meeting, you better wear business casual attire to fit in the uncertainty. At least, you will be neither too casual nor too formal.
Business casual items for men and women
Business casual for men
Business casual for women
Matching belt and shoes
Women work boots
Industries that support business casual work boots
The definition and elements of a business casual dress code depend heavily on the specific industry. A company’s culture would undoubtedly influence the consideration of attire as business casual.
Take a look at how to match your work boots with your industry.
1. Business casual work boot enthusiasts in the education sector
If you are a trainer or professor, you spend most of your time in the office or classroom. Wearing your work boots with blazers and button-up shirts helps you relax to concentrate on planning for the next lesson.
2. Fashion industry business casual code
The key to success in the fashion industry is creativity and style. The conventional business casual rules don’t apply to the stylists.
Most fashionistas wear to express their artistic style through their attire. So, they keep up with the latest industry trends, and their designs aim to make a statement.
3. Agency business casual boots
If you work for a digital advertising agency, you probably understand the psychology of marketing. Everything you say or talk shall be aiming to market the agency’s product.
So, the logo of your company needs to appear vividly in your attire. Some agencies have a rule that you must wear the logo somewhere on your clothes. So, most people wear boots with t-shirts or a tie with creative flair.
4. Work boots for the entertainment and showbiz
If you are in the entertainment industry, seldom will you wear full professional business attire. Instead, whatever you wear should speak volumes about you.
You’re trying to get attention with unique styles and statement attire. And, to stand out, work boots and custom-made blazers and shirts create the allure you are looking for.
5. Work boots for the service industry
If you work at a hospital or transportation sector, then you’re probably used to uniforms. Police officers and municipal workers also wear uniforms.
It feels proud to wear these uniforms because they serve people directly. But, that doesn’t mean service workers enjoy the succinct set of codes.
And what’s better than matching your uniform with the proper footwear? Work boots are built for service workers, literally. First, they are strong enough to protect you from the hazards of your work environment.
And, they come with a comfortable design for support and resilience.
6. Business casual boots for the medical industry
Medical professionals are almost always moving around in lab coats. So, they are allowed to wear casual attire as long as they wear the coat.
And, given the work they do, doctors deserve to catch a breath from the endless dress code routine, don’t they? With a bit of class, healthcare workers can match up the lab coat with nice ankle boots and khaki pants.
7. Finance Industry business casual boots
Anyone working as an insurance broker or a banker is a fan of executive suits. No, that’s a stereotype!
Everyone wants a break away from the norm, and bankers can wear ankle boots with khaki pants and blazers with ties for their casual Friday.
8. Tech Industry and business casual work boots
The tech industry is the hub for business casual dress codes. Have you noticed that Mark Zuckerberg, Elon Musk, and most other tech billionaires rarely wear suits?
Of course, they have a few executive suites for important in-office meetings, but that’s not their style. I think there’s an unwritten rule somewhere in the Silicon Valley constitution that tech guys wear dark-colored shirts, a blazer or jacket, and khaki pants with a pair of work boots.
What not to wear with business casual boots
Imagine walking to an office meeting, dressed in a lovely business casual attire, but in the Dunlop 8101110 White PVC gumboots?
It makes you look like a milkman! If you’re not trying to musketeer some comedy, please don’t wear that!
If you are wearing business casual attire, there are certain clothes you should keep off.
Here is what not to wear in a business casual setting:
Tight lycra or spandex
T-shirts or clothing with large text or logos
Shorts and mini skirts
Neons and other bright colors
Strapless shirts and tank tops
Are steel toe work boots business casual?
Yes, steel toe work boots are business casual when they match your color and style. If you get a good work boot, you can even blend it with your business formal dress code.
Picture this: you’ve started a business that requires you to visit a client’s site often. Most of your clients are industrial and not office type. So what will your business casual look like? Will you insist on executive suits or important business casual wear that looks like the job you do?
I’m pretty sure you don’t want to have to carry five different pairs of shoes and boots to work every morning. Instead, you’d like a work boot that fits all facets of your work environment.
Can you wear work boots in the office?
Yes, you can wear work boots to the office. Your pants cover most of your boot, and the only visible parts are the heel, the toe, and the vamp.
As long as you’re not going to the Standards and Public Approval Department Headquarters, you can wear work boots in the office!
Most work boots don’t have their primary native work industry imprinted on the toe or vamp. Also, it’s rare for your colleagues to come checking whether you are wearing a steel-toe work boot in the office.
Benefits of wearing work boots at work
Admittedly, work boots are not the fanciest footwear to have. But, that’s not to say that they can’t look good on you!
Work boots may not have been built for glamorous looks, but they pack several benefits. Your health, safety, and productivity are just the visible tips of a majestic iceberg!
1. Break monotony
Even soldiers wear something different sometimes. If you’re used to being in officially styled attire every day, you may want to take a breath. A pair of work boots at work gives you some sense of motivation.
2. Feet protection
Work boots are primarily made for protection. The environment we live in is full of hazards. You may not be working at a construction site, but if your office computer trips, it could easily crash your toe. Wearing work boots at work ensures your feet are safe all the time.
If you stand for long hours, work boots will support you to a proper posture. In fact, these pieces of footwear have anti-fatigue features that keep your musculoskeletal system healthy.
4. Keep you healthy during extreme weather
The last thing you want is for your feet to suffocate in the mud because your boots couldn’t withstand the weather. Neither do you want to contract Raynaud’s Syndrome or other foot conditions. Work boots shield you against cold, mud, and water.
5. It keeps your company off lawsuits
The OSHA standards regulate all companies. If you want to keep your business off the hands of the regulator, you better have work boots for your employees.
5 types of stunning business casual work boots
Of course, not all boots will make you look business casual. If you have to wear boots to the office, you had better make sure they match your style.
Fortunately, specific work boots will serve you both at the industrial station and in your office.
Here are some of the best types of business casual boots:
1. Zippered business casual work boots
Zippers help you wear and remove the work boot easily. When wearing zippered work boots to the office, cover the shaft with your pants, and they will look like typical dress shoes.
The Ad Tec Australian boots boast a trendy look and 100% letter construction. The sturdy quality design makes them durable and gives you proper traction.
2. The winter dress casual work boots
Winter boots are not for Alaskans only because there’s that one time of the year when we all need them. And, you don’t have to carry a winter boot in your backpack when you reach the office door.
Instead, you can get a pair of Columbia Women’s Paninaro Omni-Heat pull-on snow boot that offers you Omni-heat technology and waterproof construction. Your feet are not going to freeze in the snow, and you can look business casual too.
Here are a couple of articles related to this topic:
Best winter work boots
Best waterproof work boots
Best women’s steel toe work boots
3. Chelsea business casual work boots
If you ever need the perfect business casual footwear, Chelsea boots always come in handy. “Chelsea” is not the president’s daughter or the soccer club. No, it’s the name given to ankle-high boots!
Work boots are dressier than other designs. Chelsea boots typically take the minimalist design approach, and they offer incredible versatility. If you’re wearing jeans or khakis, Chelsea boots will suit you well.
The Dr. Martens Women’s 2976 Chelsea Boot with zipping is full leather and synthetic sole footwear that’s a definition of sturdy elegance.
You may also try the Caterpillar Founder Wp Tx Construction Boot, which has a light, comfortable footbed. The full-grain leather is waterproof, and the Thinsulate lining keeps your feet dry.
You can wear the black, Danish brown, or Gravity grey Caterpillar ankle boots to match your style.
4. Chukka business casual boots
Chukka casual boots are gaining popularity these days because they match different dress codes. Some brands are dressier, while others are casual.
Suede leather Chukka boots come in neutral colors, including brown and green.
The Ariat Lookout Western Chukka Boot Casual Shoe is a comfortable leather chukka boot with a flexible rubber sole.
The ankle-high shaft, fabric lining, and lace-up entry make these boots quite comfy. The Ariat boot comes in three neutral colors; earth, stone suede, and foothill brown.
This boot in particular comes with a soft toe. If you want more inspiration, check out the best soft toe work boots page. You’ll love the range!
Last words: So, should you wear work boots at business casual settings?
By now, you know better than to imprison your boots at the construction site! At least, you no longer have to purchase a hundred boots, while you can get one that serves the purpose for two.
Work boots aren’t the classiest of boots, but they are comfortable, healthy, and trendy. And yes, you can absolutely wear your work boots to casual business meetings.
Team Members Working On This Page
Adrian – Editor / Webmaster
Construction Professional, driver, crane operator, cleaner, head chef … these are just some of the jobs I did in the past. Working in all these different environments taught me that having good footwear to protect your feet from different dangers at work IS PARAMOUNT for any worker! On this website, I aim to share all my knowledge and personal experience in dealing with different footwear and foot care issues, and hopefully, you can get something out of it. Enjoy!
Jessica Flynn – Writer And Researcher
Love technology, going to the beach, take care of my body, and writing (amongst other things). You’ll see my face around here a little bit since I’m responsible for part of the research and writing of some of the articles you’re reading on BestForMyFeet.com. I hope you’ll find our content helpful and enjoyable! See you around, thanks for reading!
25 mm. Zeiss distagon m42 mount, ND filters.
Val Chiusella, Italy.
P&O Ferrymasters builds new 10,000m2 warehouse at Genk to offer port-centric logistics solutions
P&O Ferrymasters announces it has entered into an agreement with Genk Green Logistics to build a 10,000 square metre state-of-the-art warehouse near the Port of Genk, further enhancing its pan-European rail, road and warehousing network at a critical time for international trade and the economic recovery.
The new facility – strategically located near the port which is in the heart of Flanders’ industrial belt - is equipped with world-leading Warehouse Management Systems and will enable customers to increase efficiency, have better visibility of their goods and expand storage capacity in their end-to-end supply chains
The warehouse is ideally positioned to accommodate the import and export of goods requiring storage for international deep-sea routes and to the United Kingdom via both the Englis Channel and North Sea. The site’s outstanding multimodal transport links – including access to the Albert Canal and direct barging to P&O Ferrymasters parent company DP World’s terminal at Antwerp – will facilitate existing customers’ export of high-value industrial products to consumers throughout Europe and via onward connections to Russia, China and the United States.
As part of the global DP World and P&O Ferrymasters commitment to sustainability, the warehouse will be constructed on a carbon neutral site and designed to meet the ‘excellent rating’ of BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method).
Body - Maitreya Lara
Head - CATWA / Catya
Skin - [theSkinnery] Kailee
TATTOO - Alba and TAOX TaTToo Blue Moon
Hair - Magika / Lyric
Eyeliner - [theSkinnery] Hepburn Eyeliners
TOP: -Pixicat- Gentle
SKIRT: neve - double neutral
Body - Maitreya Lara
Head - CATWA / Catya
Skin - [theSkinnery] Kailee
TATTOO - Alba and TAOX TaTToo Blue Moon
Hair - Magika / Lyric
Eyeliner - [theSkinnery] Hepburn Eyeliners
TOP: -Pixicat- Gentle
SKIRT: neve - double neutral
Vienna Street Photography
"East meets West", juxtaposition and window reflections, Neubau, Vienna, Austria, July 2016, Leica M.